Thursday, May 7

Wrath Of God

But be assured today that the LORD your God is the one who goes across ahead of you like a devouring fire. He will destroy them; he will subdue them before you. And you will drive them out and annihilate them quickly; as the LORD has promised you.

- Deuteronomy 9:3 -


Wednesday, May 6

Countless Blessings

Dave, Craig, Lloyd...and many more, I miss you guys' company, just drop by to say hello. Will never forget those days being so isolated but you're always there for me. Longing to see you someday giving you very big hugs.

Don't be surprised I've come this far, because my heavenly father is the Maker of heaven and earth. No one should ever wonder how we made it before, and how we're going to make it again.

My special thanks to you all, and my countless blessings to your teams. Keep well, till we talk again soon.


Tuesday, May 5

Swine Flu vs Beijing Pigs

Swine influenza (also called swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu) refers to influenza caused by those strains of influenza virus, called swine influenza virus (SIV), that usually infect pigs (see photo 1). Swine influenza is common in pigs in Mainland China, particularly in Beijing City.

photo 1

People who work with pigs (see photo 2) especially people with intense exposures, are at risk of catching swine flu. Rarely, these strains of swine flu can pass from dictator to dictator. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.

photo 2

The 2009 flu outbreak in humans, known as "swine flu", is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that contained genes most closely related to swine influenza. The origin of this new strain is uncertain but likely from Beijing, furthermore, the Organization for Animal Health reports that this strain has not been isolated in Beijing pig (see photo 3). Hence this strain can be transmitted from Hu Jintao to Wen Jiabao, and causes the normal symptoms of influenza.

photo 3


Monday, May 4

Last Name For Sale

NG 8211

NG 706

NG 1796

NG 2566



Sunday, May 3

Military Spending

People, are you listening? The cost of war is estimated to be about $119 billion for the 2009 spending alone. When am I going to have this funding approved? How am I supposed to balance my balance sheet while it has lost its balance already?


Saturday, May 2

Patriotic Movement

If things were to happen all over again, I would be willing to live the same life.

~ Soong Ching Ling ~


Friday, May 1

Origin of Current Influenza H1N1 Virus

Photo courtesy at:

Influenza viruses of two subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2, have been causing respiratory infections in humans since 1977. Before that year, it was believed that only one human subtype circulated each flu season. How did this unusual situation come about?

Major changes in the surface glycoproteins of influenza virus - called antigenic shift - lead to worldwide epidemics of influenza known as pandemics. There have been six instances of antigenic shift since 1889. In that year, H2N2 viruses circulated, followed by H3N8 in 1900, H1N1 in 1918, H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 in 1968, and H1N1 in 1977. Each pandemic strain carries HA and NA proteins that have been absent in humans for many years, and therefore immunity is either very low or nonexistent.

Influenza viruses of the H3N2 subtype were still circulating in humans in May of 1977 when H1N1 viruses were isolated in China and then Russia. In the winter of 1977-78 the H1N1 viruses caused epidemic infection throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The results of serological tests indicated that the HA and NA glycoproteins of the 1977 H1N1 viruses were very similar to those from viruses of the same subtype which circulated in 1950. Palese’s group compared viral RNA of one 1977 isolate, A/USSR/90/77, with RNA from a virus isolated in 1950. To their surprise, the two viral RNAs were highly related. In contrast, there was less similarity between viral RNAs from the 1977 H1N1 virus and H1N1 viruses that circulated in humans between 1947 and 1956.

Why were the viral genomes of the 1977 H1N1 isolate and the 1950 virus so similar? If the H1N1 viruses had been replicating in an animal host for 27 years, far more genetic differences would have been identified. The authors suggested several possibilities, but only one is compelling:


"…it is possible that the 1950 H1N1 influenza virus was truly frozen in nature or elsewhere and that such a strain was only recently introduced into man."


The suggestion is clear: the virus was frozen in a laboratory freezer since 1950, and was released, either by intent or accident, in 1977. This possibility has been denied by Chinese and Russian scientists, but remains to this day the only scientifically plausible explanation.

Further reading:

Avian influenza A viruses from Asia are recognized as the source of genes that reassorted with human viral genes to generate the Asian/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) pandemic strains earlier in this century. Here we report the genetic analysis of avian influenza A H1N1 viruses recently isolated from pigs in southern China, a host suspected to generate new pandemic strains through gene reassortment events. Each of the eight gene segments was of avian origin. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these genes form an Asian sublineage of the Eurasian avian lineage, suggesting that these viruses are an independent introduction into pigs in Asia. The presence of avian influenza viruses in pigs in China places them in an optimal position for transmission to humans and may serve as an early warning of the emergence of the next human influenza virus pandemic.

Further reading:

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